Vitamins & Natural Supplements for ADHD
Is your child struggling at school? Are you struggling at work? Studies show that nutrition can improve symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) such as inattention, hyperactivity, anxiety, aggression and increase focus, learning ability, and working memory. Children and adults with ADHD have unique brain chemistry with a unique set of nutritional needs. To meet this set of nutritional needs we have specially developed the Focus Pack. Focus Packs are natural ADHD supplements for kids, teens and adults, packaged together to work synergistically and holistically for focus, balance and repair. We offer the highest quality, medical grade supplements available and our brand, Naturally Focus & Balance is made from the best natural and organic ingredients with no preservatives, dyes, soy, dairy, gluten or GMOs. To accompany our Focus Pack we have developed a Focus Program with a natural diet and targeted nutrition for a natural and alternative approach to ADHD. This includes cutting toxic food additives from your diet. Our site is packed with videos, news and information for you to watch read and learn. Let's approach ADHD naturally. Call ADHD Naturally today to schedule a free phone consultation with a doctor at (602) 469-5730.
1. Multi-Vitamin & Minerals - Vitamins and minerals are the building blocks for every function in the human brain and body. Studies show that supplementation of vitamin B6 and magnesium alone improve behavior, decrease anxiety and aggression and increase attention.
2. Neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters are the little messengers of the nervous system and allow the brain to function correctly. They are essential to a positive mood, sense of calm, focus and memory. They can be true natural focus supplements.
3. Probiotics - These beneficial bacteria occur naturally in the human digestive tract and attack yeast, unwanted destructive bacteria and toxins. Probiotics can create a positive environment for efficient digestion to take place allowing us to better absorb the nutrients we need.
4. Omega-3 Oils - DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid that is the primary structural component of the human brain. It is found in mother's milk and fish oil. Low levels of DHA are associated with poor reading, memory, behavioral problems and more. EPA is another omega-3 oil, studies have shown it's potential in treating depression and it is a powerful antioxidant.
Watch, listen to what Mom's have to say
Our natural and easy to follow 3-step Focus Program has been designed to accompany our Focus Pack supplements for the best possible results for natural focus. This is a simple guide to taking a natural and holistic approach to ADHD and ADD and how to increase focus naturally. Wouldn't it be great to improve focus, behavior, mood and physical health without the dangers and side-effects of dangerous medications? To begin, it is important to understand and nurture the positive qualities associated with ADHD. For example, a "deficit in attention" may not be the best way to describe these children and individuals. Typically, they can be easily side-tracked but, posses an ability to focus very intensely (hyperfocus) on things that capture their interest. While their minds wander, they pay attention to smaller details often overlooked by other individuals. This could be a wonderful ability for someone's future career but, unfortunately it may cause trouble in the classroom. Read more about positive ADHD traits on our About page. This program is designed to keep you or your child's best traits and super abilities intact while improving other areas in health and behavior. Individuals diagnosed with ADHD may have underlying health issues that doctors and physicians often overlook. Studies show that children and individuals with ADHD often have nutritional deficiencies, digestive disorders, detoxification issues and neurotransmitter system imbalances. Pharmaceutical medications do not cure these issues, they often mask unfavorable behavioral symptoms and come with a host of negative side-effects. The Focus Program is not just a bunch of ADD natural remedies, not a singular supplement nor medication but, a holistic, all encompassing protocol that focuses on the whole ADHD health picture. The goal of this program is not to treat ADHD but, to help an individual diagnosed with ADHD return to human homeostasis. Homeostasis is when your brain and body are in balance, functioning at their fullest potential despite factors such as stress, environmental toxins, pesticides, nutrient-poor foods, vaccines and the unique physiological needs of an ADHD individual. Let's approach ADHD naturally. This is a general program overview to provide information only and not individual treatment or medical advice.
STEP 1 - Eliminate Food Additives
Eliminate artificial colors, artificial flavors and preservatives from the diet. Your child's hyperactivity may be one of the most simple problems to control. There are close to 15,000 chemical food additives made in laboratories that food manufactures put in our food to improve taste, appear more fresh, be more colorful and last longer. Some of these chemicals include colors made from coal-tar and petrochemicals, flavors made from petroleum and paper factory waste, gasses to stop fruit from ripening and countless other carcinogenic preservatives. These synthesized additives are legally permitted to be contaminated with byproducts including lead, mercury and arsenic. The result is simple, these foreign substances in the human body cause allergic reactions. One of the many reactions is, you guessed it, hyperactivity. A great place to start is by reading labels on food at the supermarket. Remove these things from your child's diet and watch their progress. Remember that it is not only the food but everything that comes into contact with their skin like their cherry red toothpaste, blue shampoo or even vitamins that you buy at the drug store. The first step to eliminating these dangerous additives to start reading the labels on food, skin products, cleaning and hygiene products that you buy and use. You don't have to stop eating certain types of foods, just be able to recognize and select the natural version. Eliminating these toxins may be on of the simplest ways to increase focus naturally. For more information and help about how to identify and eliminate these additives, please visit our Food Additives Quick-List. The best resource for identifying these additives is The Feingold Association at feingold.org.
As a good rule of thumb, eliminate all artificial colors. These are typically designated by a color followed by a number such as Red No.2 which was banned after a large controversy and tests showing that it caused cancer and stillbirths in rats. Dyes like Yellow 5 have actually been banned in Austria, Norway and other European countries but is still legal in the US and packaged in American foods. These synthetic colors have been linked with hyperactivity in children and cancer since the seventies. They are used in snacks, deserts, meats and even oranges to appear more orange.
- Eliminate artificial flavors which will typically be designated as such, artificial flavor. Sometimes a dead give away will be the front of the box that will state, artificially flavored. These flavors are synthetic and toxic.
- The third major group to eliminate is preservatives. Here are a few of the most common, BHT, BHA and TBHQ. Preservatives have been linked with cancer, heart damage and ADHD.
- You would also be wise to eliminate artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, sorbitol, saccharin and sucralose as studies have shown them to be neurotoxins. Here is a quick list of some of the symptoms associated with food additives aside from hyperactivity: fatigue, asthma, skin rashes, eczema, headaches, thyroid disfunction, dizziness, hallucinations, estrogen imbalance, high cholesterol, liver, heart, testicle and kidney damage, obesity, stroke, difficulty breathing, gastrointestinal disease, diarrhea, incontinence, tumors and cancer.
STEP 2 - ADHD Supplements (Focus Pack)
Supplement your or your child's diet with our Focus Packs (ADHD supplements for adults and children) or pick an choose supplements from our online store. Focus packs contain four different supplements, a multi-vitamin & mineral, neurotransmitters, probiotics and omega 3 oils. Imagine your human mind and body as a complicated car that requires thousands of different fuels and fuel combinations to run smoothly. Removing just one of these fuels would be devastating and your complicated car would break down and not work properly. If the body's digestion is not functioning at 100%, it cannot process the nutrients it needs from your food. A compromised digestive system is common in ADHD individuals creates unhealthy environment for destructive bacteria and yeast to populate, then digestion, absorption and biochemical synthesis all begin to decline. Click to expand the image below and see the complexity of all the metabolic pathways that must take place for your brain and body to function properly, imagine what would happen by removing just one ingredient.
A. Multi-Vitamin & Minerals
The importance of vitamins & minerals simply couldn't be overstated. They are the fundamental building blocks for everything. They form our bones, tissues and bio-chemicals. There is nothing more basic. Taking a good multi-vitamin and mineral supplement daily is essential. Studies show that supplementation of vitamin B6 and magnesium alone improve behavior, decrease anxiety and aggression and increase attention. Below are examples of some minerals, antioxidants and vitamins for ADHD. This information should aid your search for a vitamin that helps you focus.
- Vitamin B-Complex
- Vitamin B3 - Niacin, is crucial for metabolic reactions as well as nucleic acid synthesis. It can help relieve anxiety, irritability, depression as well as poor concentration.
- Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, is essential for the synthesis of neurotransmitters which promote a positive mood, mental focus and a sense of calm. These neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin and GABA. Some studies have shown Vitamin B6 to improve memory. It is also fundamental for the production of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin which are necessary to maintain energy levels and concentration. B6 could be considered among the focus vitamins.
- Vitamin B9 - Folate. You may have noticed that none of our supplements contain folic acid. The reason is that folic acid is actually a synthetic folate and is poorly utilized by the human body. Folate is one of the most important nutrients required for mental and physical functionality. It is found naturally in uncooked leafy greens and the word folate itself is derived from the Latin word folium which means leaf. A substantial percent of the population have a genetic mutation that inhibits their ability to convert synthetic folic acid or folate into the usable form, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate also known as 5-MTHF. 5-MTHF is critical to many functions in the body such as the production of neurotransmitters and detoxification. We know that both neurotransmitter function and detoxification are critical to individuals with ADHD. 5-MTHF can be found in all of the multivitamin supplements that we carry. To learn more about 5-MTHF and this genetic mutation, please visit http://mthfr.net.
- Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin is essential for memory and cognitive function. It is also a fundamental part of the methylation cycle which helps detox heavy metals, regulates gene expression, RNA processing and neurotransmitter production. B12 could be considered one of the best vitamins for focus.
- Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid aids in the synthesis and catabolism of tyrosine to the neurotransmitter dopamine. Altered levels of dopamine are associated with ADHD, attention, behavior and working memory.
- Vitamin D - This vitamin is needed for the absorption of magnesium and zinc. Together with omega-3 fatty acids, Vitamin D is also essential to the synthesis of serotonin which regulates mental skills, attention and social behavior.
- Magnesium - Studies have shown that magnesium reduces hyperactivity in children diagnosed with ADHD. It can relax muscles, build strong bones and is one of the most highly required minerals by the human body. Magnesium has also been shown to boost cognitive abilities of the brain.
- Zinc - This mineral is required for the catalytic activity of roughly 100 enzymes. It plays a role in DNA synthesis, wound healing and proper immune function. Zinc along with magnesium are needed to make and regulate melatonin which synchronizes the body's circadian rhythms for sleep. Studies have also shown an improvement in ADHD symptoms in individuals taking zinc along with magnesium and calcium.
- Antioxidants - Individuals diagnosed with ADHD are believed to have more oxidative stress than those without the diagnosis. Antioxidants like Vitamin A, Vitamin C, glutathione and others help mitigate the damage done by destructive free-radicals in the brain and body. Herbal remedies can also help with issues of toxcitity.
Dopamine is possibly the most talked about subject when it comes to ADHD. Understanding how it works will help you understand those diagnosed. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in executive brain function, learning, memory, reward, mood and motivation. There are numerous neurotransmitters delivering specific messages throughout your nervous system and brain. Without them, your nervous system simply wouldn't work. Neurotransmitters are naturally made in the body from the amino acids that we eat in the form of protein (such as meat). Dopamine may be referred to as a feel-good neurotransmitter. When you encounter certain types of stimulation like eating your favorite food, or listening to your favorite song, dopamine is released in the brain and you feel good. In the ADHD brain, there is typically less dopamine than in other brains. The result is someone that is extremely bored by everyday tasks and topics. You may have noticed your ADHD child's ability to focus very deeply on topics or activities that they are interested in. For your child, those topics or activities likely stimulate the release of dopamine which in turn motivates them to continue. A simple summation of the ADHD individual would be someone who is constantly under-stimulated.
One way to increase the level of dopamine in the brain through natural supplementation of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine and levodopa (L-DOPA). These amino acids are converted into dopamine inside the body. L-DOPA can be converted directly into dopamine unlike phenylalanine and tyrosine making it one of the most efficient dopamine supplements. Naturally occurring L-DOPA can be found in the mucuna pruriens plant grown in tropical areas of Africa and Asia and found in various supplements.
Serotonin is another important neurotransmitter associated with a positive mood and is synthesized from 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan). It is very important to have balanced neurotransmitter function. Amino acids can be some of the best supplements for focus.
Right now your intestines are teaming with trillions of healthy bacteria. Healthy bacteria may sound strange but, we need these bacteria to help us digest food and protect our body against invading pathogens such as unhealthy bacteria that can cause infection. Unfortunately these healthy bacteria are under constant attack everyday from the water we, medicine we take and foods we eat.
Unfiltered city water can contain chlorine and other chemicals which can kill off our healthy intestinal bacteria. The use of antibiotics can also have a negative effect on the population of these necessary bacterium.
Eating foods high in sugar will feed another another populations of yeast in your digestive tract. Yeast or candida is a fungus and is one of the destructive microorganisms that can also increase when your digestive system is under stress from food allergies and bolstered by the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics target the negative types of bacteria that cause infections that we human are sometimes exposed to. Unfortunately, antibiotics do not discriminate between types of bacteria and also kill the positive, beneficial bacteria that naturally occur and lives in your digestive tract. These beneficial bacteria aid and assist with digestion and maintain a healthy environment for digestion to take place. When your system is under stress or the beneficial bacteria die off from antibiotic use, suddenly there is room for new organisms like yeast and unwanted, destructive bacteria to populate. This begins a downward spiral of digestive issues including malabsorption, increased food sensitivities and any of the problems discussed earlier. Yeast has been linked to behavioral problems, ADHD and even autism. Signs that your child has yeast includes antibiotic use, irritability, mood swings, bed wetting, headaches, sleep disturbances, fatigue, eczema, rashes, cradle cap, red ring around the anus, thrush, peeling feet, discolored nails, bloating, constipation and diarrhea.
It is absolutely critical to stop the growth of yeast and rebalance your child's digestive tract. The best way to do this is by taking probiotics to repopulate the gut with beneficial bacteria. This "good" bacteria will gobble up the yeast and "bad" bacteria to eliminate them from the body and create a positive environment in the digestive tract once again. This process can take time. Remember the digestive system is the gateway to all other systems in the body. In many cases the use of dietary fiber supplements is helpful when used in conjunction with the probiotics. It will help move debris and toxic build-up through the intestines where it eventually be eliminated in stool. Digestive enzymes can also be very helpful in cleaning up the digestive tract. In extreme cases of yeast overgrowth you may need to get a prescription for anti-fungal drugs from your child's doctor.
D. Omega-3 Oils
DHA is an Omega-3 fatty acid (oils) that is the primary structural component of the human brain. It is found in mother's milk and fish oil. Clinical studies have shown it to decrease heart rate, improve memory and improve learning. Studies have also shown Omega-3 supplementation to decrease symptoms of inattention in children. Individuals with higher levels of DHA have been observed to perform better on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary. Tests have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD have lower levels of these fatty acids in their blood than children not diagnosed with ADHD. In a recent article, Time Magazine wrote about a study done by Oxford University that found that when nine year olds with the lowest level reading skills supplemented their diets with Omega-3 oils, they were able to excel their reading skills and development at even a faster rate that the kids at the top of the class. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies also showed Omega-3s to increase working memory, improve parent-rated behavior and reduce aggression in children. Studies in mice have even shown DHA to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Low levels of DHA are associated with poor reading, memory, behavioral problems and more. EPA is another Omega-3 fatty acid and studies have shown the potential of treating depression with supplementation. It is a powerful antioxidant. DHA and Omega-3 oils can be one of the best focus supplements for mental acuity and cognitive function.
STEP 3 - Repair
In this final step we observe the changes and healing taking place and give the body and mind time to repair. Pay attention to positive changes in your child's behavior, performance at school, interactions with others and changes in your own personal relationship with your child. Look for positive developments in your child's overall health, an improved immune system and better digestion. Look for visible problems such as aggression, hyperactivity, fatigue, lack of focus, rashes, constipation, diarrhea, bed wetting, headaches, belly aches and others should go away. This is a process change and discovery. You may find that modifications to your own or your family's lifestyle are necessary to accommodate your adapting child.
Possibly the most important aspect of this step is to understand what it means to have a diagnosis of ADHD. ADHD is less prevalent in adults than children. More than likely this is due to the mobility of the workforce versus the rigidity of the classroom. ADHD individuals that reach adulthood have the freedom to choose a line or work that better suits their unique attention patterns, abilities and interests. In this this type of atmosphere, ADHD symptoms become less of a hinderance and more of an advantage. ADHD individuals have been described as focusing on what captivates their interest and rather than what someone (e.g. a teacher) says is important. ADHD individuals typically excel in arts, sciences and any field or specialty that fascinates their interest. New genetic research has supports the idea Rather than focusing on correcting your child's shortcomings, focus on their interests and talents and to try to foster them.
At any point, choosing to ween your child from prior drugs or medications should be done slowly and under the supervision of a doctor or health care physician.
For individuals with severe and acute conditions we have devised an Advanced Program. Our Advanced program contains options for further testing, herbal remedies for detoxification and more. These individuals should first and foremost follow our Focus Program. The Advanced Program is a number of tests designed to help identify potential causes of ADHD symptoms.
- Lisa Y. Lefferts, M.S.P.H., edited by Michael F. Jacobson, Ph.D., and Laura MacCleery, J.D. (2015). Seeing Red: Time for Action on Food Dyes http://cspinet.org/reports/seeing-red-report.pdf
- Bar M1, Efron M1, Gothelf D2, Kushnir J3 (Dec 2015). Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24037921
- Food Dye https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_coloring
- Study on the interaction of artificial and natural food colorants with human serum albumin: A computational point of view. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25935119
- Vojdani A, Vojdani C (2015). Immune Reactivity to Food Coloring http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25599186
- Dwan Price,1,2 Leigh Ackland,1 and Cenk Suphioglu2 (Oct 2013). Nuts 'n' guts: transport of food allergens across the intestinal epithelium http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826608/
- Pietschmann N (Jul 2015). Food Intolerance: Immune Activation Through Diet-associated Stimuli in Chronic Disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030116
- Food Intolerance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_intolerance
- Vitamin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin
- B Vitamins https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_vitamins
- Niacin https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niacin
- Vitamin B6 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B6
- Vitamin B12 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B12
- Spellicy CJ1, Northrup H, Fletcher JM, Cirino PT, Dennis M, Morrison AC, Martinez CA, Au KS (Dec 2012). Folate metabolism gene 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with ADHD in myelomeningocele patients. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227261
- Nogovitsina OR, Levitina EV (Jan 2006). Effect of MAGNE-B6 on the clinical and biochemical manifestations of the syndrome of attention deficit andhyperactivity in children. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16579066
- Mousain-Bosc M1, Roche M, Rapin J, Bali JP (Oct 2004). Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15466962
- Starobrat-Hermelin B1 (1998). The effect of deficiency of selected bioelements on hyperactivity in children with certain specified mental disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9857546
- Vitamin C https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_C
- Sezen H, Kandemir H, Savik E, Basmacı Kandemir S, Kilicaslan F, Bilinc H, Aksoy N (Feb 2016). Increased oxidative stress in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26886057
- Joshi K1, Lad S, Kale M, Patwardhan B, Mahadik SP, Patni B, Chaudhary A, Bhave S, Pandit A (Jan 2006). Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314082
- Deth RC1 (Nov 2013). Autism: a redox/methylation disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24416710
- Garcia-Olivares J1, Torres-Salazar D, Owens WA, Baust T, Siderovski DP, Amara SG, Zhu J, Daws LC, Torres GE (Mar 2013). Inhibition of dopamine transporter activity by G protein βγ subunits. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23555781
- Hariri M1, Djazayery A2, Djalali M2, Saedisomeolia A2, Rahimi A3, Abdolahian E4 (Dec 2012). Effect of n-3 supplementation on hyperactivity, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24568073
- Bradstreet JJ1, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA (Apr 2010). Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20359266, http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/15/1/15.pdf
- Dvoráková M1, Jezová D, Blazícek P, Trebatická J, Skodácek I, Suba J, Iveta W, Rohdewald P, Duracková Z(Jun 2007). Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18019397
- Pärtty A1, Kalliomäki M1, Wacklin P2, Salminen S3, Isolauri E1 (Jun 2015). A possible link between early probiotic intervention and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders later in childhood: a randomized trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25760553
- Rucklidge JJ1. (2013) Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23784606
- Matsubara VH1, Bandara HM2, Mayer MP3, Samaranayake LP2 (Jan 2016). Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26826375
- Kumar S1, Bansal A, Chakrabarti A, Singhi S (Feb 2013). Evaluation of efficacy of probiotics in prevention of candida colonization in a PICU-a randomized controlled trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361033
- Köhler GA1, Assefa S, Reid G (Jul 2012). Probiotic interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22811591
- Matsubara VH1, Silva EG, Paula CR, Ishikawa KH, Nakamae AE (Apr 2012). Treatment with probiotics in experimental oral colonization by Candida albicans in murine model (DBA/2). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22059932
- Romeo MG1, Romeo DM, Trovato L, Oliveri S, Palermo F, Cota F, Betta P (Jan 2011). Role of probiotics in the prevention of the enteric colonization by Candida in preterm newborns: incidence of late-onset sepsis and neurological outcome. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20410904
- Ruiz-Sánchez D1, Calderón-Romero L, Sánchez-Vega JT, Tay J (Sep 2002). Intestinal candidiasis. A clinical report and comments about this opportunistic pathology. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12715941
- Linares DM1,2, Ross P2,3, Stanton C1,2 (Dec 2015). Beneficial Microbes: The pharmacy in the gut. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26709457
- Pace F1, Pace M, Quartarone G (Dec 2015). Probiotics in digestive diseases: focus on Lactobacillus GG. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26657927
- Uusitalo U1, Liu X1, Yang J1, Aronsson CA2, Hummel S3, Butterworth M1, Lernmark Å2, Rewers M4, Hagopian W5, She JX6, Simell O7, Toppari J8, Ziegler AG3,Akolkar B9, Krischer J1, Norris JM10, Virtanen SM11 (Jan 2016). Association of Early Exposure of Probiotics and Islet Autoimmunity in the TEDDY Study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26552054
- José E. Belizário, Mauro Napolitano (Jun 2015) Human microbiomes and their roles in dysbiosis, common diseases, and novel therapeutic approaches http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594012/
- Tanaka K1, Fujiya M2, Konishi H1, Ueno N1, Kashima S1, Sasajima J1, Moriichi K1, Ikuta K1, Tanabe H3, Kohgo Y4 (Nov 2015). Probiotic-derived polyphosphate improves the intestinal barrier function through the caveolin-dependent endocytic pathway. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459590
- Messamore E1,2, McNamara RK3 (Feb 2016). Detection and treatment of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in psychiatric practice: Rationale and implementation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748485/
- Omega-3 fatty acids 'could improve reading and behaviour' (Sep 2012) http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2012-09-07-omega-3-fatty-acids-could-improve-reading-and-behaviour
- Bos DJ1, Oranje B1, Veerhoek ES1, Van Diepen RM1, Weusten JM1, Demmelmair H2, Koletzko B2, de Sain-van der Velden MG3, Eilander A4, Hoeksma M4,Durston S1 (Sep 2015). Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25790022
- Patrick RP1, Ames BN1 (Jun 2015). Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolardisorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25713056
- Milte CM1, Parletta N2, Buckley JD3, Coates AM3, Young RM4, Howe PR5 (Nov 2015). Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With ImprovedAttention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24214970
- Szkup-Jabłońska M1 (2011). The effect of lead and cadmium on the lipid profile and psychosocial functioning of children with developmental disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23002671
- Huss M1, Völp A, Stauss-Grabo M (Sep 2012). Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice forattention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20868469
- Gustafsson PA1, Birberg-Thornberg U, Duchén K, Landgren M, Malmberg K, Pelling H, Strandvik B, Karlsson T (Jun 2010). EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491709
- Quintero J1, Rodríguez-Quirós J, Correas-Lauffer J, Pérez-Templado J (Sep 2009). Nutritional aspects of attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19728277
- Johnson M1, Ostlund S, Fransson G, Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. (Mar 2009). Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents.
- Kidd PM1 (Sep 2007). Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18072818
- Itomura M1, Hamazaki K, Sawazaki S, Kobayashi M, Terasawa K, Watanabe S, Hamazaki T (Mar 2005). The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15741051
- Kidd PM (Oct 2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11056411
- Richardson AJ1, Burton JR, Sewell RP, Spreckelsen TF, Montgomery P (Sep 2012). Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, cognition and behavior in children aged 7-9 years: a randomized, controlled trial (the DOLAB Study). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970149
- Widenhorn-Müller K1, Schwanda S2, Scholz E3, Spitzer M4, Bode H2 (May 2014). Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24958525, http://www.altmedrev.com/publications/5/5/402.pdf
- Bollmann S1, Ghisleni C2, Poil SS3, Martin E4, Ball J5, Eich-Höchli D6, Edden RA7, Klaver P8, Michels L9, Brandeis D10, O'Gorman RL11 (Jun 2015). Developmental changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101852
- Wu S1, Bellve KD2, Fogarty KE2, Melikian HE3 (Nov 2015). Ack1 is a dopamine transporter endocytic brake that rescues a trafficking-dysregulated ADHD coding variant. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26621748
- Xing B1, Li YC1, Gao WJ2 (Jan 2016). Norepinephrine versus dopamine and their interaction in modulating synaptic function in the prefrontal cortex. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26790349
- Erica Bowton,1,4 Christine Saunders,2 Kevin Erreger,1 Dhananjay Sakrikar,4 Heinrich J. Matthies,1 Namita Sen,5Tammy Jessen,2 Roger J. Colbran,1 Marc G. Caron,6 Jonathan A. Javitch,5 Randy D. Blakely,2,3,4 and Aurelio Galli1,2,4 (Apr 2010). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2881830/
- Stahl SM1 (Mar 2003). Neurotransmission of cognition, part 3. Mechanism of action of selective NRIs: both dopamine and norepinephrine increase in prefrontal cortex. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12716261
- Hinz M1, Stein A, Neff R, Weinberg R, Uncini T (Jan 2011). Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with monoamine amino acid precursors and organic cation transporter assay interpretation. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3035600/, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21326653
- Brown JA1, Emnett RJ, White CR, Yuede CM, Conyers SB, O'Malley KL, Wozniak DF, Gutmann DH (Nov 2010). Reduced striatal dopamine underlies the attention system dysfunction in neurofibromatosis-1 mutant mice. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957316/
- Pine A1, Shiner T, Seymour B, Dolan RJ (Jun 2010). Dopamine, time, and impulsivity in humans. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059485/
- Vucetic Z1, Totoki K, Schoch H, Whitaker KW, Hill-Smith T, Lucki I, Reyes TM (Apr 2010). Early life protein restriction alters dopamine circuitry. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873068/
- Woods SK1, Meyer JS (Jun 2010). Exogenous tyrosine potentiates the methylphenidate-induced increase in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: a microdialysis study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1760749
- van Rooij D1,2, Hartman CA1, van Donkelaar MM3, Bralten J3,4, von Rhein D2,4, Hakobjan M3, Franke B3,5, Heslenfeld DJ6, Oosterlaan J6, Rommelse N7,Buitelaar JK4,7, Hoekstra PJ1 (Oct 2015). Variation in serotonin neurotransmission genes affects neural activation during response inhibition in adolescents and young adults with ADHD and healthy controls. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428549
- Lin SH1, Lee LT2, Yang YK1 (Dec 2014). Serotonin and Mental Disorders: A Concise Review on Molecular Neuroimaging Evidence. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4293164/
- Thissen AJ1,2, Bralten J3,4, Rommelse NN1,2, Arias-Vasquez A1,3, Greven CU2,4,5, Heslenfeld D6, Luman M6, Oosterlaan J6, Hoekstra PJ7, Hartman C7, Franke B1,3, Buitelaar JK2,4. (Jan 2015) The role of age in association analyses of ADHD and related neurocognitive functioning: A proof of concept for dopaminergic and serotonergic genes. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586935
- van Mil NH1, Steegers-Theunissen RP2, Bouwland-Both MI3, Verbiest MM4, Rijlaarsdam J5, Hofman A6, Steegers EA7, Heijmans BT8, Jaddoe VW9, Verhulst FC10, Stolk L4, Eilers PH11, Uitterlinden AG12, Tiemeier H13 (Feb 2014). DNA methylation profiles at birth and child ADHD symptoms. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290898
- Saha T1, Dutta S, Rajamma U, Sinha S, Mukhopadhyay K (Nov 2014). A pilot study on the contribution of folate gene variants in the cognitive function of ADHD probands. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25079255
- Dan Eisenberg, PhD, and Benjamin Campbell. San Francisco Medicine (Oct 2011) The Evolution of ADHD http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/eisenberg-and-campbell-2011-the-evolution-of-ADHD-artice-in-SF-Medicine.pdf
Dopamine receptor D4, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine_receptor_D4